Aliens Among US!
the parasitic races: trill, Gouald, Bluegill, hive, colonists, The Invaders and Xenomorphs
An examination of the Sarmaks and other "Martian Invaders"
By Dennis Power and Dr. Peter Coogan
The Circle of Life, the Circles of Time, the Circle of Lies.
In Hall of Worlds Al Schroeder discusses the beings that he has termed "the Marvaders." These are the beings portrayed in H.G. Well's War of the Worlds. Mr. Schroeder has theorized that they are responsible for the seeding of the universe with humanity and human-derived species. He also credits them with technology far beyond what they are seen to possess in War of the Worlds. He theorizes they had the ability to genetically engineer human beings, to build pocket universes, and to travel through time. Furthermore he claims that that the War of the Worlds never took place, that it was merely a warning written by Wells about a possible invasion that never manifested. He states that the main reason that the Marvaders did not invade the Earth was that they had "come to the realization that the germ-infested Earth would be the death of them, and abandoned their plans." Mr. Schroeder further states, "The WAR OF THE WORLDS, of course, is fictional. If you read it closely, you will see it is set in the near future from the date of publication, and there was no real-life cessation of the magazines PUNCH or wholesale rebuilding of
. There is no record of such an invasion." (1) He speculates that Wells received the information about the pending invasion from a Crystal Egg owned by a C. Cave. By Mr. Schroeder's persistent denial of the actual occurrence of the War of the Worlds, we can see that he, like many well regarded scholars, has fallen for the disinformation campaign of the Circle of Life. One of the main purposes of the Circle of Life is of course to disprove all evidence of extraterrestrial contact with Earth. Their motivation behind this is simply because they are collaborators with aliens who do not mean to serve mankind, except as dinner. I do not go so far as to call Mr. Schroeder an active agent of the Circle of Life, but you never know. (2) London
The "Hall of Worlds" article speculates that the Marvaders genetically engineered the various humanoid races in the galaxy from Earth-evolved humanity for various purposes: mainstay humanity to serve as a food supply, races such as the Kryptonians to serve as super-powered workers (3), the Vulcans to serve as biological computers,(4) and the Gallifreyians to help the Marvaders with their time-travel experiments. It also speculates that the various versions of Mars depicted in literature (e.g. Barsoom, Malacandra, and J.H. Rosny's Mars) are pocket universes devised by the Marvaders as stock pens, with humanity as the stock of choice. While many of the speculations concerning Mars in the "Hall of Worlds" article are inaccurate, it is true that genetic manipulation was instrumental in the creation of the Kryptonian physiology and also that the Marvaders used pocket universes.
The "Hall of Worlds" article speculates that humanity has an odd genetic connection to the many "alien races" in the galaxy, that Earth-evolved humanity was seeded throughout the universe, and that genetic manipulation was used to allow seemingly incompatible alien species to successfully procreate. However, humanity and the various other races were not initially seeded by nor were they genetically altered by the Marvaders. The seeding of humanity and the altering of the human genome was not originally enacted to create various races of servants. The ability to create pocket universes or the ability to time travel does not seem to have been widely possessed by the Marvaders. If they could create pocket universes and create populations to inhabit them, then they would have no reason to plan an invasion of the Earth
If they had the ability to travel through time, they could have foreseen that their planned invasion would fail and taken measures to circumvent their failure.
The Marsvaders or as they were called by the Barsoomians, the Sarmak, were leeches. They were parasites not only in their dietary needs but also in terms of their technology.
From what we could see of the "Martians" in Wells' account, they had an odd sort of technology--they possessed immense mechanical tripods that could walk great distances and emit heat rays of devastating power and force. The "Martians" also possessed a black smoke that could serve as a defensive screen or poisonous gas. Another weapon they possessed was a fast growing reddish weed. However, they traveled from planet to planet by launching themselves with giant cannon, apparently using launch inertia and the gravitational pull of their target worlds to make successful landings. These technologies seem a bit incongruent, ad hoc if you will. This is because although the Sarmak were highly intelligent they were not creative; they seem to have cobbled their technology together from technologies already used by other species.
We know from a variety of sources that the Sarmak were not native to Barsoom (The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen Volume II, Number. 1 for one example). We furthermore know that humanity on Barsoom pre-existed many of the flora and fauna that John Carter and people of his era found on Barsoom. The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen II seems to indicate that Kane (of Michael Moorcock's Mars series) existed in the far past of John Carter's Barsoom. While some allusions in The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen II seem to owe more to Alan Moore's sense of whimsy (or misinformation) than actually having transpired, the presence of the Sorn for instance,(5)the Kane reference does seem to be a valid one.
It was not the Sarmak who were responsible for seeding the universe with humanity, it was someone else. The "Hall of Worlds" article agrees that there are accounts that attribute the seeding of space to groups other than the Marvaders
"I am aware that several sources, from the 2001 monolith to the Celestials, have been depicted as playing around with young humanity, and altering its genetics, to make them more advanced. Yet why should the Celestials, for instance, make Barsoomians, Gallifreyians, and earthlings so similar that they can crossbreed? It makes no sense.
I don't doubt some genetic manipulation is involved. Indeed, I am convinced it is the answer to the more startling differences---from the Barsoomians' egg-laying, to the People's telepathy, and to the double hearts of the Gallifreyians. Yet the basic genetic compatibility between humans was not wiped out...
For I am convinced all of these originated on Earth. "
Many of the humanoid species in the universe began on Earth, but their having compatible genetics does make sense. There is a perfectly logical explanation when it is known who actually did the genetic manipulation and what their motivations were. Schroeder proposes:
"Let us imagine, hundreds of thousands of years ago, aliens landing on Earth and kidnapping whole tribes of humans.
They may have been altered genetically to make better servants."
Human beings--or at least human genetic material--were removed from the Earth. It was not the Sarmak who took the genetic material or seeded the galaxies. While in some cases humans were genetically altered to create a servile class, this was not the primary motivation for the abduction of these populations, nor were these initial abductions carried out by the Sarmak. They were merely the beneficiaries of these actions.
The "Hall of Worlds" article also speculates that the Marsvaders used pocket universes to create duplicates of Mars such as Barsoom or Malacandra. There may be such pocket universes, but it does not seem to be the Sarmak who created the pocket universes, although they may indeed have later made use of them. The speculation that places Barsoom in a pocket universe limited to Barsoom ignores the other planets in its cosmology. The "Hall of Worlds" article clearly places Barsoom in this sort of limited pocket universe as otherwise it would have asserted that the War of the Worlds took place on Annwn, but the article does not. Instead, it is clear from Burroughs' work that Annwn, Amtor, Sasoom, etc, are all in the same alternative universe as Barsoom, therefore drawing the conclusions of "The Hall of Worlds" further into doubt.
In the Star Trek episode Miri, the crew of the
encounters a world virtually identical to Earth that had suffered a biological catastrophe in its early twentieth century. Another Earth? In Bread and Circuses they later discovered a planet upon which the Enterprise Roman Empirehad never fallen and was in its twentieth century. They chalked this up to Hodgekin's Law of Parallel Planet Development. A few months later they encounter the planet Omega 4, as seen in the episode TheOmega Glory. The inhabitants were divided between the Coms and the Yangs. They had fought a devastating nuclear and biological war in their twentieth century, but given that the nuclear war happened hundreds of years in the past this seems to indicate that Omega 4 was also in its 22nd century. Omega 4 was yet another planet that had developed almost exactly as Earth, including having a with the same flag, Constitution and Pledge of Allegiance. United States of America
In the episode TheParadise Syndrome the
finds a class M planet that it is inhabited by a group of American Indians consisting of Navaho, Mohican, and Enterprise tribes. They had been placed there by a group called the Preservers, who went about preserving endangered species and cultures. In the Star Trek novel Preserver it is revealed that the Preservers were responsible for Miri's planet, for the transplanted Romans, and the duplicate Earth of Omega 4. The Federation had found more duplicate Earths, as well as a couple of duplicate Vulcans. There were also transplanted proto-Vulcans on Mintaka III, as seen in the STNG episode Who Watches the Watchers.(6) Delaware
The implication is that the Preservers were also responsible for these transplanted populations. It is further hinted that the Preservers are somehow connected to the Ancients, a group of beings who lived at the dawn of the universe. On Star Trek they are known for having created the Guardian of Time. They also left behind other artifacts such as the interstellar gateways used and duplicated by the Iconians. These Stargates were later co-opted by a parasitic race of beings known as the Gouald, as seen in the Stargate SG1 television series. In the Stargate series it is further explained that the Ancient Ones ascended or became beings of energy. I first speculated in that the Ancients had evolved into beings of energy in the Aliens Among Us article some time before evidence of such a speculation surfaced on Stargate SG1. These energy beings are known in the Star Trek series by a variety of names depending on the faction or persona they happened to be using, for example the Q, Organians, or the Douwd. They are known in various other literary sources as the Arisians, the Celestials, the Elder Gods, the Old Ones and Long-Gones
They have taken a particular interest in humanity and certain other humanoid species. In the Star Trek the Next Generation episode entitled The Chase, it is discovered by Dr. Richard Galen, that a small bit of genetic code of 19 different humanoid species formed a puzzle which when placed together created a message of hope and unity. The hidden code was seen to have been the work of the Preservers. Yet there may have been more to the genetic tinkering than just a message.
As Mr. Schroeder and other researchers have pointed out, it is nearly impossible that these divergent species would have evolved by themselves and still be able to have cross-species fertilization. For years it was thought that Mr. Spock, the half human/half Vulcan officer must have been the result of some sort of gene therapy that allowed the divergent species to successfully cross fertilize. If Spock were unique, then this argument might hold some merit. Yet we have seen many instances of progeny rising out of cross-species relationships. Some of the children from these unions resulted from casual or violent encounters. Sela the half Romulan/half Human was the result of rape as was Ziyal, the half Bajoran/half Cardassian, Alexander son of Worf resulted from an intimate encounter between Worf and K'Ehleyr, a half Human/half Klingon, so in these cases the pregnancy was spontaneous and not due to artificial insemination.
Of course we still need to answer why. Why of all the various species in the Galaxy are these species, with humanity in particular, so chosen for preservation? Ah, that is the kicker. The Ancients were of human origin, descended from humanity that had evolved on Earth. Yet they also had some extraterrestrial components to their genetic make up. They evolved into powerful non-corporeal beings of energy who could manipulate time, space, and matter. They were able to traverse the universe from beginning to end without a care for the consequences since the universe was static and stable. Although there were known by many names, the name that perhaps suits them best is the Omni for they seemed to be omnipotent, omniscient, and could be omnipresent.
Of course not all humans evolved into a non-corporeal state, many remained corporeal. They turned their energies to discovery and to time travel. The first time-travel experiments proved that it was impossible to cause a temporal paradox. Armed with this knowledge, the corporal time travelers journeyed to the beginning of the universe. They watched the Big Bang and in doing so introduced the Heisenberg principle of uncertainty, that observation changes observed phenomena. The timeline fractured from the beginning and diverged ever more as it traveled towards the end of time. One theory among the Omni was that the divergences would lose energy and that after the end of time, the timeline would reverse itself and the divergences would meld into a single timeline again. However, there was a good chance it would be radically different from the original timeline.
The Omni quickly attempted to repair the timeline, mainly because they feared for their own existence. If the timeline in which they had evolved were destroyed, then they could very well be winked out of existence. Despite believing themselves to be omnipotent and omniscient they were in fact neither, no matter their great powers. Their actions only caused the timeline to diverge even further. The Omni split into factions as to how best to handle this potentially deadly situation. Without going into great detail on the factions of the Omni or of the various solutions that they tried, one of solutions attempted was to ensure that their original timeline survived by making as many timelines as possible nearly identical to the original as possible. Yet not even they could foresee every contingency or account for every divergence. To ensure their survival even if the original timeline could not be repaired, the Omni hatched a momentous plan to at least preserve humanity so that it would eventually evolve into the Omni, even if not on the original Earth.
They transplanted human beings onto distant worlds to blend the genetic code of humanity into other humanoid species so that they too would have the possibility of evolving into Omni. The Omni also used pocket universes to preserve humanity in self-enclosed habitats outside regular areas of space and time where it could be safe from catastrophic events that might affect the multiverse. They Ancients did not expend their considerable energies in creating all of this; they used corporeal agents called Preservers for these duties. The Preservers were the last of humanity who had not yet achieved non-corporeal status. The Omni promised the Preservers that their great works would ensure that they could evolve into the Omni.
The Preservers used time travel to achieve their great works. Those who were stationed at the beginning of time were the ones who acquired the odd sobriquet of the Ancients because they worked so far in the past.
Just as there were factions of the Omni, so were there factions of the Preservers. Less scrupulous Preservers used the gifts of the Omni for personal gain, such as abusing time travel. To combat time travel abuses by renegade Preservers, a special group of Preservers was initiated on the planet Gallifrey, which had been one of the first humanoid populations transplanted from Earth. They had been transplanted on Gallifrey shortly after the beginning of the Universe. The Gallifreyians had achieved space travel and time travel on their own.(7) Only a few Time Lords are active agents of the Preservers, for the Council of Gallifrey had adopted a policy much like the Prime Directive--never to interfere in the affairs of other cultures. The Preserver Time Lords have extended life spans and the ability to regenerate into younger and different bodies. Their final regeneration is usually into one of the Omni.
One of the other abuses of renegade Preservers was to use the technology to create pocket universes for purposes other than the creation of hidden reserves of humanity. They used the pocket universe technology for scientific experimentation. They also created pocket universes based on ancient works of fiction as a means of entertainment or to create their own hidden kingdoms. When the unauthorized pocket universes were discovered, the malfeasant Preservers were removed from their unauthorized creations, but the pocket universes were allowed continuing to exist on their own.(8)
The "Hall of Worlds" article is correct when it states "We're more or less a protected state preserve." However, it is not because this planet is "where foodstuffs (us) are grown and occasionally harvested." Rather it is because our descendents are watching out for us, out of the purely selfish motive of ensuring their existence by keeping the Earth relatively free of alien contact or annihilation until it is supposed to have had contact according to their records. But there are forces working against the Omni and the Preservers that make it impossible for them to successfully keep all such protected preserves in all timelines free of alien contact. There is also the problem that with the fragmenting of the timelines, it is no longer certain which events are supposed to occur, which events are true, and which events are fictional. In this the plurality of timelines is a blessing, for the Omni can prevent such events as the Sarmak invasion from happening in some universes such as ours. Thus, even if they cannot prevent it from occurring in others such as the WNU, they will at least have one pure timeline. Even so, Preserver agents made efforts to make certain that these events that could be history altering become negated not by temporal adjustment but rather by altering public opinion.
The Circle of Life were unwitting agents of the Preservers in their efforts to make the Invasion appear to be a fictional event. One wonders why Moriarty and his agents did not reverse engineer the tripods and heat rays of the Sarmak to create engines of destruction with which they could conquer the world. The tripods were in fact systematically destroyed by agents of Preservers, eradicating all traces of the alien technology, thus helping to maintain the illusion that the War of the Worlds was a non-event. Of course those people who were involved in it would remember, but as they died out and as the evidence disappeared, it became seen as a fictional event.
What were the Sarmak? The Sarmak were from the originally from a planet known as Eddore in the Andromeda Galaxy. They were not the species so capably described by E. E. Smith that gave the Arisians so much trouble but rather another sentient species that arose on Eddore at the same time as the shape-shifting Eddorians. Smith speaks of the wars on Eddore in which great portions of the planet and its population were destroyed. Facing annihilation from the shape-shifting Eddorians, the Sarmak opted to leave their home planet. They developed the method of traveling through space by hibernating in spheres. These spheres were launched by being shot out of large cannons. The Sarmak left Eddore by the millions. One of the main reasons that the Eddorians had tried to exterminate the Sarmak was because they would have eventually destroyed Eddore. Although sentient, the Sarmak were like locusts, stripping a fertile area of food and resources and moving on.
Although the Sarmak attempted to stay together in their exodus through space, spheres were lost or became diverted by the gravitational pull of celestial objects that traversed their path. They landed on planet after planet, working their way across the Andromeda Galaxy and into the Milky Way Galaxy, leaving a trail of once-fertile barren worlds in their wake. It took a couple of million years. At this time there was not a galactic barrier at the end of the so they were able to travel without problem into the Milk Way Galaxy.(9)
600,000 years ago there existed the Tkon Empire, a stellar empire of a trillion or more inhabitants. The Tkon were engaged in their Great Endeavor, which was to replace their dying sun with a new one. A young member of the Q, which we will identify as "Picard's Q" for simplicity as this Q formed an ongoing relationship with Captain Jean-Luc Picard, was tricked by into testing the Tkon by other members of the Omni. These individuals used their powers for evil. These evil members of the Omni were known as 0, Gorgan, (*), and The One.
Picard's Q caused the Tkon's sun to go supernova before its time, wiping out the Tkon Empire and all its inhabitants. Had Picard's Q not interfered, the Tkon would have replaced their old sun with a new one and the Tkon Empire would have continued. When the supernova exploded, the being known as (*) diverted a large stellar fragment to a path that took it toward Earth's solar system.
Picard's Q, 0, Gorgan, The One, and (*) faced the wrath of the Q Continuum for the extermination of the Tkon Empire. They fled. In the Detrian system, 0 detonated a planet's solid dilithium core, triggering a matter-antimatter explosion. This renegade Omni's battle against the Q Continuum would last 100,000 years and wreak havoc on the galaxy.
During 0's final struggle, a solid iridium asteroid was hurled at a female Q. Picard's Q hastily ripped open the fabric of the space-time continuum and plunged the asteroid millions of years back in time where it would impact Earth and consequently extinguish the dinosaurs. Picard's Q 's punishment was to personally oversee the reconstruction of Earth's biosystem and its life forms.
As it happened, the first vessels of the Sarmak fleet had approached the area in space where the battle between O and the Picard's Q was fought. When Picard's Q caused the asteroid to travel to the distant past, three of the Sarmak vessels were inadvertently taken as well. Two of the Sarmak vessels fell on Mars and another fell on Pluto. The vessel that fell on Pluto did not find food resources. They were forced to adapt or perish. They adapted and flourished, gaining sustenance from minerals rather than blood. They became known as the Mi-go. The two vessels which fell on Mars perished.
...and survived. But because of deadly radiation the surviving Sarmak were also forced to evolve into different forms.
This same event happened in several timelines, one of which is known as the primary Wold Newton Universe and the other is the Burroughsian universe.
In the primary Wold Newton Universe Mars was a dead world, and so the Sarmak perished.
In the Burroughsian Universe, they were able to find food resources, but because of the harsh background radiation and disease from nuclear and biological warfare they evolved into different forms.(10)
One sphere landed in what is known as the
The Sarmak lost their sentience as they evolved into a semi-humanoid form and became known as the Plant Men. The other sphere landed on an island in the Valleyof Dor. . Isolated, the Sarmak grew into the beings known as the Kaldanes. They learned selective breeding and eventually evolved their small shrew like livestock into rykors, beings that appeared to be headless humans with whom the Kaldanes lived in a symbiotic relationship. Toonal Sea
Eventually Barsoom would be repopulated by humans, also from Earth in the far future, courtesy of the Preservers or their agents the Sheev, and civilization would arise when most of Earth was still groping towards stone technology.
Then came the great Cataclysm.
The stellar fragment from the Tkon sun traveled towards the Earth's solar system near light speed. At this time there were eleven planets in the solar system--Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Planet X, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Planet Y, and Planet Z. The stellar fragment, which was quite huge, had immense gravitational fields as well as heat energy. The fragment hit Planet Y or passed close enough to it to break it up. The remnants of Planet Y are now the Kuniper asteroid belt. The fragment passed by
Neptune, close enough to alter the orbits of Neptune's moons Triton and Neriad and also to drag Pluto out of orbit from Neptuneand put it in an orbit around the sun. Passing close to Uranus, the stellar fragment caused the planet's axial orbit to tilt and possibly pieces of the fragment or of Neptune were broken off and created some of the fifteen moons that circle Uranus. Passing near Saturn, the stellar fragment shattered Saturn's moons--causing the rings--sped up Saturn's rotation, and placed the moon Phoebe into a retrograde orbit. Jupiter remained largely unaffected by the fragment either because of its great size or because the collisions with the other planets had placed the fragment on a path that avoided Jupiter and sent it directly into Planet X, which was a gas giant between Jupiter and Mars. This planet was destroyed, and the resulting explosion and fragmentation added to the asteroid belt. The stellar fragment also plunged directly into Planet Z, shattering it and adding its mass to the asteroid belt. Several fragments hit Barsoom and shifted its orbit and rotation and degraded its core. The new rotation and orbital shift lessened Barsoom's gravity, and an ecological disaster quickly struck the planet. The oceans began to dry up and the forests to die, and with these major oxygen sources compromised the atmosphere of Barsoom, which gradually became toxic to oxygen-breathing life. The stellar fragment theory was derived from Herbie Brennan's book The Atlantis Enigma
In the Burroughsian universe a stellar fragment struck the most populated area on Earth or rather Annwn, as it is people would call the planet, setting back civilization by centuries. Yet it also seemed to raise the psionic ability the survivors, allowing some of them to do great feats of telekinesis, telepathy, etc.
In the primary Wold Newton Universe, the above scenario was almost exactly duplicated with the exception that Mars did not have a great civilization to destroy, only its oceans were dried up.
On Earth the fragment passed by but not close enough to destroy the planet, but close enough to cause a fantastic light show and to alter the Earth's axial orbit. The sudden orbital shift caused all sorts of world-wide cataclysms including the sinking of Hyperborea.(11) The people fled to the land that would become known as Lemuria, as seen in Lin Carter's Thongor series. The huge gravitational field of the stellar fragment also caused immense waves that flooded many areas previously untouched by such floods. The various geological disruptions led to atmospheric disturbances, rains, and darkness as dust settled in the air. However, due to the axial shift, the particulate matter in the air, and the huge amount of moisture in the air from the floods and rains--combined with the loss of heat from the stellar fragment as it moved away from the Earth--the planet was subject to flash freezing, causing the rapid creation of the Ice Age. Mankind was plummeted from a rather high degree of civilization into the stone age.
Barsoom was not the target of (*) when he sent the stellar fragment into this solar system, nor was the Earth. Rather it was a planet named Thyoph, identified above as Planet Z, whose people had developed to a high degree of civilization and physical perfection. Thyoph was present in many timelines and in most of them it was destroyed by (*) who was some times associated with Azathoth. Sometimes there were survivors of Thyoph, sometimes there were not.
In the final sequence of events of (*) hurtling the stellar fragment towards Earth's solar system a chunk of nearly pure thyophite fell to the Earth and landed near six men from three different stone age tribes. Irradiating them, they became immortal. One of these men was Vandar Ang who became known as Kane.(12)
Those Sarmak who were not accidentally swept up in Picard's Q 's time displacement continued their journey past the remnants of the Tkon Empire, leaping from world to world across the Milky Way Galaxy and acquiring suitable bits of technology to add to their arsenal from species that they conquered and decimated. As they traveled through the galaxy, groups of Sarmak splintered off again and again, having been thrown off their companions' route as by cosmic debris or resistance to their conquests. Some stumbled onto advanced technologies, which they co-opted, and onto worlds where they could feed without having to worry about ecological disaster from their destruction of the natural resources, at least not for a long time.
As these things go, the Sarmak made their way through the galaxy slowly but certainly. Approximately 600,000 years--give or take a century--after the Tkon Empire's sun was made to go supernova, the Sarmak arrived in Earth's solar system.
In his Original Crossover Chronology Win Eckert speculated that the Sarmak originated in what is designated as the Burroughs Universe. This was a valid speculation given his sources at the time: John Carter's account of his fight against the Sarmak in "Mars: The Home Front" in War of the World's Global Dispatches and the account by Dr. Watson and Sherlock Homes of them traveling to a parallel Earth named Annwn in The Second War of the Worlds. The second volume of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen seems to confirm this speculation. However, there are two problems with this theory. One is that the Sarmak did not seem to have had the technology to transfer between dimensions at the time of the first War of the Worlds. But it is possible that the physical passage of "Gullivar of Mars" (Ulysses Paxton) to Barsoom might have caused some sort of rift in the space/time continuum that the Sarmak could have used. Indeed this space/time rift probably did occur, but we do not believe that the Sarmak used it at that time. Another more perplexing problem is that if the launch of the Sarmak cylinders occurred in another dimension, how could Earth astronomers observe the launches from ordinary telescopes?
We have seen that events are often duplicated, although not exactly, in various timelines. The arrival of the Sarmak on both Mars and Barsoom at the same time is one of these duplications of events. It does not belie belief any more than the same exact group of people from two differing versions of the Star Trek Universe in two very different universes using a transporter at the same exact moment as seen in Mirror, Mirror.
Mr. Eckert, like many researchers--including the authors of this piece, was confused by the similarity of the events and so assumed there was one launch taking place when actually there were two taking place at the same exact moment in two different universes. These attacks may even have been coordinated. One of the technologies that the Sarmak appeared to have acquired was a device that could communicate across parallel dimensions. Both the Barsoom-based and Mars-based Sarmak seemed to have acquired it. It probably communicated visually through the Gridley wave. Mr. C. Cave also seems to have acquired one of these interdimensional communicators, although his probably came from a member of the original race who had designed it and had visited the Earth rather than from one of the Sarmaks. The reason it showed a scene of activity on Barsoom seems to be because this is the closest device being so used at the time.
The Sarmak landed on Barsoom and were opposed by John Carter, "Gullivar Jones," (13) and native Barsoomian forces. Carter stated that they managed to destroy the launching cannons after a few cylinders had been launched. These cylinders were heading for Annwn. They never arrived; the rushed launched had caused their trajectories to be off course just enough to miss Annwn's gravitational pull.
The Sarmak landed on Mars and met no opposition. They launched their assault on Earth from cannons that were seen by Earth-based astronomers. The launched cylinders successfully landed at key areas on the Earth.
Since the two accounts synchronized so well, many researchers mistook them for a single incident when in fact there were two incidents.
Although Wells' account of the invasion was exaggerated so far as the great destruction that occurred and the number of cylinders that landed, the event did transpire and there was a great deal of death and destruction.
One important detail that Wells altered, at the behest of His Majesty's government, was how the Sarmak perished. According to Wells' account it was ordinary bacteria not harmful to human beings that killed the Sarmak. The "Hall of Worlds" article uses these bacteria as proof that the Sarmak would not have invaded because they had "come to the realization that the germ-infested Earth would be the death of them, and abandoned their plans."
I fear we must disagree with the "Hall of Worlds" article's assessment in this particular because according to the theory presented, the Sarmaks had populated the galaxy with genetically engineered humans FROM Earth, and therefore the Sarmaks would have already had to have BEEN on Earth in order to gather their original specimens. If their Earthborn humanity had been their primary stock animals for millennia, it seems odd that they would not have acquired some measure of immunity--via the ingestion of human blood--from Earthly diseases in that time. Also if their biological sciences had been so vast as to genetically engineer such diverse populations as the Kryptonians, Gallifreyians, Vulcans, etc., then surely they would not have had to worry about microbes. They could have, as the article later suggests, used containment suits of some type or developed effective antibiotics or antiviral agents.
Although we have demonstrated that the seeding of the universe was done by other more potent beings, we do believe that the "Hall of Worlds" article was correct in the speculation that the Sarmak had previously subsisted on human blood. This blood came from human populations previously seeded in the galaxy by the Preservers. However, the Sarmak were not worried about catching disease from anything on Earth because they had acquired immunity to diseases through their subsistence on human blood.
They were correct in this belief for the microbe that killed off the 1898 Sarmak invasion of Earth was not a natural disease, it was an early form of germ warfare. The virulent bacteria had been engineered to infect only the Sarmak and not to have any affect on the native human or animal population. This disease was engineered out of an influenza strain by Dr. Moreau at the behest of the British Secret Service.(14)
Although John Carter and his forces believed that they had wiped out all of the Sarmak on Barsoom, they had not. Some Sarmak had escaped the attack by Carter's forces and rebuilt their machinery and launching cannons. They once again tried to land on Annwn. James Moriarty had discovered the dimensional communicator owned by C. Cave and used it to contact the Sarmak. Moriarty's genius allowed him to locate a spot of weakness between the dimensions and travel to Annwn.
In 1901 the Sarmaks on Barsoom tried to invade the Earth again, but this time it was an Earth espied through another dimensional rift. They planned this effort with more care, including contacting and creating an alliance with humans from the Earth that their other dimensional brethern had invaded. The Circle of Life cult, led by the second Professor James Moriarty, collaborated with the Sarmak in this second invasion, based on the cult members' belief that the Martian Sarmaks were completely superior and should be the natural rulers of humanity"
There was an odd electromagnetic field about Annwn that may have deflected the first invasion from Barsoom. This magnetic field may also have enhanced the psionic abilities of the inhabitants of Annwn. With Professor Moriarty's aid, the Sarmak were able to plot a trajectory that would allow their vessels to land upon this planet despite the odd magnetic field. The inhabitants of Annwn also contacted people from the Earth, namely Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Watson. Having previous experience with both the Martians and Moriarty, they helped defeat the Sarmak landing on Annwn.
However in defeat, the Sarmaks turned on their Circle of Life allies and incinerated most of them. James Moriarty, upon his return to Earth realized "that he need[ed] to distance himself from those events. He tap[ped] the remaining infrastructure of the Circle of life organization on Earth, rename[d] the group 'Krafthaus,' and assign[ed] Krafthaus members what seem[ed] a daunting task: the complete eradication of any substantial evidence of the existence of extra-terrestrials."(15)
Not all of the Sarmak on Barsoom traveled with the fleet to Annwn and so did not perish. They hid in fertile valleys and proved to be a persistent menace. One traveler named Tercer traveled from Earth to Mars in 1924 using a modified plane. This is described in "Our Distant Cousins" from The Travel Tales of Mr. Jorkens by Lord Dunsany. Landing upon Barsoom, he discovered a facility where human beings were being kept like poultry behind wire cages. He shot and killed one of the Sarmak guards after it had wrung the neck of a small girl and boy. Tercer's description of the Martians is very close to "Gullivar Jones" description of the Ha-Thern.(16)
Tercer's description of the region he visited also has marked similarities to the account related by Edwin Arnold in Lieut. Gullivar Jones, His Vacation. The population of the Ha-Thern may have survived the earlier assaults by the Thathor and Sarmak only to be rounded up by some surviving Sarmak and used as chattel. After killing the Sarmak, Tercer quickly returned to his plane and took off once again. Tercer's account was related to Mr. Jorkens and his biographer several years after the incident took place.
How Tercer managed to cross the dimensional barrier and travel to Barsoom in a modified plane is unknown. He probably entered the Burroughsian dimension through the same rift that "Gullivar Jones'" passage in a magic carpet had created. Evidence that Tercer traveled through dimensions can be seen by his account of his return trip. Slightly off course due to his hasty departure from Mars, he landed on a swampy area on an asteroid. The asteroid had a breathable atmosphere yet its gravitational pull was so slight that he was able to lift his one ton plane and carry it for several miles to a dry place for him to take off. He also found elephants the size of mice and attempted to capture one. Part of Tercer's tale of his trip to Mars may have found its way into the Marvel Comics version of Gullivar of Mars. In this quite transformed version, Gullivar's hair turns stark white from the result of his passage to Mars, as does Tercer's in his tale.
Seven years after his return to earth, Tercer received a radio message from the Sarmak directed at him, challenging him to return. This would have been approximately 1931. Tercer returned to Mars in an improved ship, loaded with weapons. Jorkens and his biographer received a message that simply said "Victory, Victory." This is recounted in "The Slugly Beast" from Mr. Jorkens Remembers Africa by Lord Dunsany. They assumed that the message came from Tercer. However, it may not have been Tercer who sent the message. He may have been in fact captured by the Sarmak and forced to work for them, and this seems quite likely. Using Tercer's technical expertise, the labor of the Ha-Thern, and the limited mineral resources of the area, the Sarmak might have been able to been able to build some tripods, traveling spheres, and a launching cannon in the next seven years. They learned of the dimensional rift and believed that the Earth would be a better target than Annwn.
Tercer used the distraction of the launch to stage a rebellion that succeeded in damaging the launch cannon. The rebellion was given aid and support from Helium, whose scientists had remained vigilant for signs of further Sarmak activity.
Only a few of the cylinders made it through the dimensional rift before it closed. Their launch trajectory landed them first on the Earth's Moon. They established a small moon base in 1936.
In 1938, a small invasion force that was roughly two thirds of their total contingent landed on the East Coast of the United States; specifically, October 31, 1938 at Grover's Corner, New Jersey. They was fairly quickly defeated by the United States Army and by a super-powered individual whom some accounts erroneously attribute as being Superman. However this superman perished in his fight against the Sarmak. (17) The
government unwittingly helped the Circle of Life's agenda when they put out the cover story that the live radio reports were actually a radio play put on by Orson Wells' Mercury Theatre. Agents of the Preservers destroyed the remains of the Sarmak and the technology that they had brought to Earth. United States
After their failed attempt in 1938, the remaining Sarmak forced their captives to devise new weapons. Among these captives were slaves and assistants of the Barsoomian scientists Fal Silvas, Gar Nal, and Phor Tak. The slaves managed to capture a couple of working models of the various devices of these scientists but it took decades to reverse engineer a powerful disintegrating/heat beam and force fields for their new invasion of Earth.
They launched one more invasion attempt in 1952. This time a single cylinder containing three tripods/saucers landed in a desert community not too distant from
. The Sarmak had developed force fields that rendered existing Earth forces almost helpless. Although this invasion did manage to cause some damage to Los Angeles , especially the cities of California and Los Angeles , the aliens were once again defeated by germ warfare. The Army used a few remaining vials of the Moreau virus (note it was an entirely different group of Sarmak who had been previously exposed to this virus; besides which, none survived to build immunities to the hybrid virus).(18) San Francisco
Having failed in their previous attempts, the Sarmak dramatically altered their method of attack for Earth. Rather than trying to invade and conquer the huge populace of the Earth, the Sarmak sought to replenish their food supply without directly confronting the military forces of the Earth. They modified their tripods into saucers that could make the short interplanetary trip between the Earth and the Moon. Rather than directly confronting the Earthlings themselves, they instead used the knowledge of genetics from some of their captured hormad slaves to create a new species, the Harvesters. The new creatures were a fusion of hormad, Green Martian, and human Barsoomian genetics. The hormad had originally been created from a fusion of kaldane and human Barsoomian because of the plasticity of the kaldane genome.
Their first version of Harvesters seemed to have more of the kaldane in than the other strains. They had bulbous, spongy heads. Stronger than humans, they had the kaldane taste for raw flesh. The only traits of the green men seemed to be the lack of ears and spots of greenish-tan coloring that covered parts of their body. For some reason this species had a serious liability, salt water burned them like acid. This first Harvester ship mutinied and crash landed in the Mohave desert in 1985.The few remaining survivors were taken in by the United States government, which--once they discovered that the ship was inoperable and the slaves knew nothing--granted them asylum. The few hundred survivors were taught English and given various low-profile jobs; their "malformations" were explained as manifestations of Elephant Man disease. One of government employees who had helped socialize the aliens sold their story as a story to a
Hollywoodscreenwriter. The screen writer filled in the gaps of the story with details that were wholly fictional. (19)
The last time the Sarmak made their presence known on Earth was in 2001
The second generation of Harvesters were tall, green, and resembled Green Men, except for the lack of a second pair of arms. The Sarmak were able to imbue the green Harvesters with a method to overcome their prey quickly and easily by exuding a noxious gas that would cause unconsciousness. Like their predecessors these Harvesters could also be harmed by water, although it did not need to be salt water.
On one weekend in 2001 the Sarmak launched six or so ships from the moon, seeking out prey in rural areas. They abducted hundreds of people and created landing markers by making circles in crops. While a few videotaped accounts of their Harvesting do remain, it is untrue that the Harvesting became public knowledge by being broadcast via world wide television. They blocked all signals from the areas over which they hovered. The satellite companies blamed the blackouts on sunspot activity.(20) The "Hall of Worlds" article is once again correct when it states that occasional harvesting does occur.
Mention should be made of yet another incident of Sarmak activity. This happened on a parallel Earth but not in a parallel universe to the Wold Newton Universe. It was one of the Earths created by the Preservers as part of their mission. They tried to duplicate earth history but with some variation to, perhaps, achieve a quicker evolution of mankind.
The exact location of this particular Earth is unknown; however, its planetary system was much like ours. These Sarmak were among those whose cylinders had taken different trajectories than the main bulk of the Sarmak as they traversed the Milky Galaxy after leaving the Andromeda Galaxy. They were fortunate to have eventually landed upon a world with high technology. This stolen higher technology allowed the Sarmak the ability to travel from world to world through the use of true interplanetary space vehicles and navigate rather than being launched from planet to planet. This offshoot of the Sarmak evolved a bit differently from their fellow Sarmak, gaining almost human faces, possibly as a result of some sort of symbiosis with a humanoid race.
The history of the "Earth" upon which they finally landed followed ours almost exactly, as had the "Earth" that was Omega 4. In 1947 an alien vessel was shot down by United States Air Force planes outside of
. This alien vessel and its three inhabitants were sent to Area 51 for study. Roswell, New Mexico
In 1952 another scout ship crash landed outside of a small town. The three alien crew members were not hurt, but their ship was damaged. The captain of the ship had the two crew members don their exoskeletons and capture some of the humanoid population. The captive humans had controlling devices placed on their necks. The humans began to repair the scout ship. A young boy named David MacLean was suspicious of the zombie-like actions of the adults of his town and informed the military. This was during the Cold War, after all, when paranoia ran rampant. The military destroyed the alien ship by high explosives.(21)
In July of 1990, the Sarmak arrived at the duplicate Earth and went into orbit. The mother ship launched several small vessels, which hovered over the capitals of the nations of the world. In synchronized blasts, they destroyed the capitals and moved onto secondary targets. The military forces of the world soon discovered that their military might, even nuclear weaponry, could not damage the ships, which had a protective forcefield. It was discovered that the power for all of the ships was broadcast from the mothership. Even the captured ship at Area 51 had switched on. In a daring attempt to save the world, Captain Steven Hiller, an airforce pilot, and David Levinson, a computer programmer, used the captured ship from Area 51 to fly to the mothership, upload a computer virus that would disable the ability of the mothership to broadcast power, and plant a nuclear bomb to destroy the mothership.
As soon as the forcefields were disabled, the military commands of the world launched an all-out assault on the alien vessels, destroying them.(22)
This took place on
July 4, 1990. The Sarmak were destroyed and the world was safe for eight years, when another wave of the Sarmak arrived. This time they prevailed. Most of humanity was killed, and for the most part the rest were enslaved. Most became fodder to feed the Sarmak. Others became workers, helping the Sarmak strip the earth of natural resources. The Sarmak enjoyed having their subject populations pitted against each other for rewards of food or comfort and so made some of the children of the humans to be raised as gladiators to fight against each other. One child named Jonathan Raven--or as he was called in the arena Killraven--eventually rebelled against the Sarmak and lead a group of escapees into the wilderness beyond the ruined cities of mankind. They carried out a guerrilla war against the Sarmak and hopefully drove the invaders from the Earth. (23
There will be those who will dismiss this article as, mere fiction, phony scholarship, the ravings of madmen, or as an attack on a well-regarded Wold-Newtonian researcher. But this is not fiction, we are true scholars, we are very much sane, and our intention was not to disparage anyone. Still we expect negative commentary, for we know that even though the Circle of Life was supposedly disbanded early in the last century, adherents to its philosophy and motives are still out there. They obscure the truth of the Wars of the Worlds with deceit, mistruths, and outright lies that are thicker and more dense than Sarmak's deadly black smoke. They cover up the reality of the existence of extraterrestrial life with false documentation more intertwined, entangling, and choking than the Sarmak's fast-growing red weeds. Finally they take aim at those dedicated to seeking truth about the Invasion and its aftermath, searing them with patronizing condescension, false accusation, and character assassination more deadly than a Sarmak heat ray.
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1. This does raise an interesting point, why would H. G. Wells publish the account of War of the Worlds as fiction and place it as a near future event? We do not believe that the national governments of the
and United States were in the pocket of the Circle of Life but rather in this instance their goals coincided. An Alien invasion was considered too much for people to emotionally and intellectually digest. News censorship of the event was almost immediately put into effect. Since the Preservers were assiduously eradicating Sarmak technology almost as soon as the invasion took place, every tangible, concrete evidence of the invasion was dissipating. The rebuilding efforts moved very quickly with government sanction. Rather than admit the existence of aliens and possibly create of social chaos as the reality of the vulnerability of mankind to alien attack the governments admitted nothing. Victorian morality and ethnocentrism also played a role in downplaying and eventually mythologizing the invasion. To admit that man was not unique and not alone in the universe flouted the very core world view of humanity in this age. Great Britain
H. G. Wells however felt that the story had to be told and so fictionalized it, exaggerating to some extent the scope of the Invasion. Yet why did he need to get this story out so quickly? Because he had learned that the Circle of Life was working in concert with the Sarmak and were planning another invasion. He was, however, unaware that this invasion would be taking place in another universe on another Earth. In essence he was warning people about the possibility of a second invasion... Since a second Invasion never took place on Earth, it may be that Wells believed that his novel had stopped the Circle of Life from carrying out their evil deed.
2. The Circle of Life was an organization created by Professor James Moriarty after the defeat of the Sarmak invasion of 1898. They were able to contact the Sarmak, discovering that they inhabited a different dimension. Moriarty was able to discover ways to cross over to this dimension discovering gates between the dimensions. Moriarty however did not travel to Annwn. "Following the Sarmaks' betrayal of the Circle of Life collaborators on Annwn, and the Circle's decimation under the heat-rays of the invaders, any mention of extra-terrestrial life, Martian or otherwise, becomes an embarrassment for the second Professor James Moriarty. Although he ran the Circle of Life from a distance, and was planning on using the Circle cult members and the events of the Second Invasion with an eye towards eventually ruling Annwn himself, Moriarty now realizes that he needs to distance himself from those events. He taps the remaining infrastructure of the Circle of Life organization on Earth, renames the group 'Krafthaus,' and assigns Krafthaus members what seems a daunting task: the complete eradication of any substantial evidence of the existence of extra-terrestrials. Moriarty's goal is that within fifty years, no one on Earth will believe in alien life or that the War of the Worlds really happened." Quotation from The Original Wold Newton Universe Crossover Chronology Part V: 1901 entry.
3. The idea that the Kryptonians had been genetically engineered by the Marvaders also, I'm afraid, falls flat, crushed by the very gravity of Krypton. As Mr. Schroeder points out, the Marvaders evolved on a planet with a lesser gravity than that of Earth's. Mars or Barsoom was conducive for them because of its low gravity. Yet on Earth they would have had a hard time moving about, which was one of the considerations of not attacking it in his schema. If this is the case, why would they place a subject race on a world's whose gravity would literally pulp them? Indeed why would these frail Marvaders produce the Krytponians--a race of beings whose strength, invulnerability, and other abilities would make a greater threat to the Marvaders than an asset. One can only imagine it would be like trying to turn a grizzly bear into a draft animal. It is also speculated that the Kryptonians were among those used by the Marvaders as a food source. The Marvaders fed by taking blood from a victim and then injecting it into their own bodies. Given that a hypodermic needle could not pierce
Clark 's dense tissue structure unless driven in with his own super strength, it is unlikely that the Marvaders could feed upon the Kryptonians. Kent
The notion that the Vulcans were genetically engineered to become human computers is illogical. If this was so the modification would have had to taken place long after the Vulcan's had achieved a highly advanced civilization. The Vulcans evolved on Vulcan from a form of primate, as shown in Spock's World. They were a violent, passionate species. These traits are still reflected in the Romulans, who are actually Vulcans who emigrated off of Vulcan in ages past. The Vulcans had their period of global conflicts and nearly destroyed themselves. Their embrace of emotionless logic arose as a method of channeling their passions and innate violent nature. It seems unlikely that given their so violent past that the Vulcans were deliberately engineered to become biological computers.
5. The winged Martian that John Carter and Gullivar discover in the Sarmak's encampment is believed to be a Sorn subjected to flesh-mechanics by the Sarmak. However at this time the Sarmak did not possess the ability to manipulate genetics as they would eventually have. The reference to the winged Sorn actually seems to be a winged Karanthorian, as described in John Carter of Mars, No. 19
6. The planet Zillikan, as seen in the J.T. Edson Bunduki series, with its extinct races of mankind and species of animals may also be one of the Preserver projects. The Planet Malacandra is Mars, but not the Mars of our solar system. Instead it is the Mars of a solar system created by the Omni as an experiment in creating perfect species that would evolve into Omni even faster than humanity. However, despite their perfection, the species of these planets remained stagnant and never evolved into Omni. By the time that Malacandra had been discovered in the 22nd century, it was long abandoned. However, Ransom's descriptions were detailed enough to identify the planet. Ransom was the main character of Out of the Silent Planet by C. S. Lewis, which was the source of information about Malacandra.
7. Other cultures also achieved time travel on their own. On many timelines of Earth time travel was discovered on at various time periods. Many times the technology led to abuses. The Preservers often aided but did not take direct action in such temporal police agencies such as the Time Patrol or The Temporal Police, which were often localized to one timeline. Time travel often has led to temporal wars. The crew of the first Enterprise became unwitting pawns in a temporal cold war; in one timeline governments adopted time travel as a means of fighting wars that led to temporal distortions and timeline divergences. This was depicted in Simon Hawke's Time Wars series of novels.
8. The humans created in one of these latter pocket universes later developed the ability to create pocket universes themselves. They were known as the Thoans. Some of the Sarmak also stumbled onto a gate that gave them access to a pocket universe. Taking over the pocket universe, they discovered how to travel to other pocket universes and also how to maintain them so that the biolabs would provide populations when the pocket universe became depleted. Just as the Goulad co-opted the Stargate technology and claimed it to be their own, in these pocket universes the Sarmak co-opted them and claimed to be the creators of the technology. This may be where Mr. Schroeder arrived at the speculation that the Marsvaders had created pocket universes.
9. The Galactic Barrier first appeared in the second pilot of the original Star Trek series, "Where No Man Has Gone Before." Peter David's Q-Squared revealed that Q, imprisoned by Trelane in the Galactic Barrier, attempted to escape by merging with humans who traveled to the Barrier, and bestowing Q-powers on those humans. Q, then, was responsible for the events that led to the destruction of the Valiant in 2094 ("Where No Man Has Gone Before"), as well as the events that led to the deaths of Lt. Cmdr. Gary Mitchell and Dr. Elizabeth Dehner of the U.S.S. Enterprise at Delta Vega in 2262 ("Where No Man Has Gone Before"). It next appeared in "By Any Other Name" as the reason for the destruction of the Kelvans ship as they entered the Milky Way galaxy. It appeared one last time in "Is There In Truth No Beauty?" Spock had to mind meld with the Medusan ambassador to get them out of the Barrier.
10. This disease and radiation were the legacies of the Wars of the Sheev and Raksa, which took some place a few thousand years after the establishment of the Kane dynasty. For more see Big Bang Barsoom: The Kane Conundrum of Ancient Barsoom.(forthcoming)
11. Hyperborea was chronicled by Clark Asthon Smith. Hyborea was chronicled by Robert E. Howard. Similar names, different eras and places
12. For more information see Immortal Befuddled.
13. For the true identity of "Gullivar Jones" please see Gullivar Jones is Ulysses Paxton
14. For more information see That Stubborn Flesh Come Creeping Back: The Islands of Dr. Moreau. This speculation was confirmed about one year after it first appeared by The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Volume II, # 6. In this record, Dr. Moreau creates a hybrid germ bomb. However, the account in LOEG II shows human beings also dying from this germ bomb. This was not the case at the time. The germ that Moreau created did mutate and develop into the devastating influenza pandemic of 1918. Another speculation that seems to have been in error in LOEG II was that Mr. Hyde was incinerated by a heat beam. Not so, he was a lycanthrope and eventually regenerated. Yet the shock of "death" and the stress of regenerating is why the Edward Hyde character was preeminently dominant by 1909.
15. Eckert, Win The Original Wold Newton Universe Crossover Chronology Part V: 1901 entry.
16. For more information please see Gullivar Jones is Ulysses Paxton
17. This is depicted in Superman: War of Worlds, DC Comics February, 2000. Although the hero depicted in the graphic novel is Superman, in actuality it was Fred Carson., Wonder Man. Fred Carson was a son of Hugo Danner.
18. This was dramatized in the 1953 film War of the Worlds.
19. For the fictional portrayal of how these Harvesters landed on Earth and their socialization into American life see the film and television series of Alien Nation.
20. A film version of this event, the movie Signs highly exaggerated the invasion force making the event seem to be of world wide occurrence.
21. This incident was portrayed in the film Invaders From Mars.
22. This was also depicted in a cinematic epic named Independence Day.
23. The Marvel comic book version of Killraven had Killraven wandering across a drastically changed America filled with alien landscapes and mutated peoples. This was more interesting, apparently, than the truth in which his band of freedom fighters were forced to fight and hide in a landscape becoming increasing barren. We do not know how tales of Killraven's feats were transmitted to Marvel Comics across time and dimensional space, although it may have been in the 26th century timepod that was source for much of the Star Trek related history. See the story Research by J.R. Rasmussen in Star Trek: Strange New Worlds II anthology
© 2003 Dr. Peter Coogan
© 2003 Dennis Power